Diseases Blood Pressure

Blood Pressure

It’s the pressure exerted by blood pumped by heart on the arteries. The problem begins when pressure is too high or too low. The former condition is called hypertension and latter one is hypotension. The ideal blood pressure in normal healthy person is 120/80. Chronic or constant blood pressure can be the sign of heart related problems, strokes and kidney failure.

Types Of High Blood Pressure

Primary Hypertension :
It is called as essential hypertension and it develops over a period of time. About 90 to 95% cases in adults fall in this category.

Secondary Hypertension :
It can develop suddenly and is the result of many underlying causes like side effects of any drug. 2 to 10% of cases fall in this category.

It is further subdivided as follows :
• Renovascular hypertension
• Hypertension secondary to other renal disorders
• Hypertension secondary to endocrine disorders
• Other secondary hypertension

Causes :
There are no accurate causes for essential hypertension. But most common are as follows.

1-Age :
Old people are more prone to high blood pressure

2- Family History :
It is believed that in most of the cases, patient’s family members have the problem of blood pressure.

3- Temperature :
Study has shown that blood pressure is high in summer and low in winter.

4- Obesity :
Both overweight and obese people are more likely to develop high blood pressure, compared to people of normal weight.

5- Smoking :
Smoking causes blood vessels to narrow. It also reduces oxygen content. So, heart has to pump blood with more pressure. This causes high blood pressure.

6-Alcohol :
The systolic pressure of heavy drinkers is always higher than those who do not drink.

7-Low birth weight :
the link between low birth weight and hypertension becomes stronger as individuals get older - especially among white males, as opposed to female and males and female of Afro-Americans, scientists at the Tulane Center for Cardiovascular Health, New Orleans reported.

Most people with high blood pressure will not experience any symptoms until levels reach about 180/110 mmHg. When symptoms do appear, they typically include:

1. Headache
- usually, this will last for several days.

2. Nausea
A sensation of unease and discomfort in the stomach with an urge to vomit.

3. Vomiting
Less common than just nausea.

4. Dizziness
Lightheadedness, unsteadiness, and vertigo.
Blurred or double vision (diplopia).

5. Epistaxis

6. Palpitations
Disagreeable sensations of irregular and/or forceful beating of the heart.

7. Dyspnea
Breathlessness, shortness of breath.

8. Anybody who experiences these symptoms should see their doctor immediately.

Children with hypertension may have the following signs and symptoms :
• Headache.
• Fatigue.
• Blurred vision.
• Nosebleeds.
• Bell's palsy - Inability to control facial muscles on one side of the face.

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